Various types of research cost different amounts.

$ 1000 – $ 2000: A relatively small amount of money, between $1000 to $2000, can be very useful. We can run tests of some pre-existing samples for that amount of money, or we can pay publication fees for research with that money. For example, we could assess the microbiome (the array of microbial life) in some samples we have in our freezer or we could assess the cytokines (a measure of immune function) in our frozen samples for $1000 and $2000, respectively. Publication fees for many journals range from $250 to $2000, depending on the quality of the journal. If we sell just 40 bottle openers at $25 each, or one piece of large artwork for $1000, then we have enough to do something interesting.

$ 10,000 – $ 20,000: If we want to perform new experiments rather than using samples from old experiments, then between $10,000 and $20,000 is required. For example, we are very interested in looking at how “normal” immune function, that is, immune function with an enriched biome, affects the incidence of cancer. We need some new experiments to address this issue, and running one set of experiments will cost approximately $15,000.

$ 100,000 – $ 200,000: Performing series of related experiments costs more money. The reason is that salaries of technicians and professional scientists must be paid. One or two new experiments can be performed by students being trained in an academic setting, but full scale research projects are more expensive and require key personnel.

$ 1,000,000 – $ 2,000,000: With this level of funding, actual trials on human subjects can be performed. In other words, with this amount of funding, we could begin examining the effects of biome enrichment on many aspects of human health and disease. The costs in working with humans are significantly higher because clinical space, physicians, study coordinators, nurses, and administrative staff to help with regulatory issues are important and necessary parts of the study.